Scalping: Small Quick Profits Can Add Up

Scalping is a trading style that specializes in profiting off small price changes, generally after a trade is executed and becomes profitable. It requires a trader to have a strict exit strategy because one large loss could eliminate the many small gains the trader worked to obtain. Having the right tools such as a live feed, a direct-access broker and the stamina to place many trades is required for this strategy to be successful.

Read on to find out more about this strategy, the different types of scalping and for tips about how to use this style of trading.

How Scalping Works

Scalping is based on an assumption that most stocks will complete the first stage of a movement. But where it goes from there is uncertain. After that initial stage, some stocks cease to advance while others continue.

A scalper intends to take as many small profits as possible, without letting them evaporate. This is the opposite of the “let your profits run” mindset, which attempts to optimize positive trading results by increasing the size of winning trades while letting others reverse. Scalping achieves results by increasing the number of winners and sacrificing the size of the wins. It’s not uncommon for a trader with a longer time frame to achieve positive results by winning only half or even less of his or her trades – it’s just that the wins are much bigger than the losses. A successful scalper, however, will have a much higher ratio of winning trades versus losing ones, while keeping profits roughly equal or slightly bigger than losses.

Scalping: Small Quick Profits Can Add Up

The main premises of scalping are:

  • Lessened exposure limits risk: A brief exposure to the market diminishes the probability of running into an adverse event.
  • Smaller moves are easier to obtain: A bigger imbalance of supply and demand is needed to warrant bigger price changes. For example, it is easier for a stock to make a 10 cent move than it is to make a $1 move.
  • Smaller moves are more frequent than larger ones: Even during relatively quiet markets, there are many small movements a scalper can exploit.

Scalping can be adopted as a primary or supplementary style of trading.

Spreads in Scalping vs. Normal Trading Strategy

When scalpers trade, they want to profit off the changes in a security’s bid-ask spread. That’s the difference between the price a broker will buy a security from a trader (the bid) and the price the broker will sell it (the ask). So, therefore, they’re looking for a wider spread.

But in normal circumstances, trading is fairly consistent and can allow for steady profits. That’s because the spread between the bid and ask is also steady, as supply and demand for securities is balanced.

Scalping as a Primary Style

A pure scalper will make a number of trades each day — perhaps in the hundreds. A scalper will mostly utilize one-minute charts since the time frame is small, and he or she needs to see the setups as they shape up in as close to real time as possible. Supporting systems such as Direct Access Trading (DAT) and Level 2 quotations are essential for this type of trading. Automatic instant execution of orders is crucial to a scalper, so a direct-access broker is the preferred weapon of choice.

Scalping as a Supplementary Style

Traders with longer time frames can use scalping as a supplementary approach. The most obvious way is to use it when the market is choppy or locked in a narrow range. When there are no trends in a longer time frame, going to a shorter time frame can reveal visible and exploitable trends, which can lead a trader to scalp.

Another way to add scalping to longer time-frame trades is through the so-called “umbrella” concept. This approach allows a trader to improve his or her cost basis and maximize a profit. Umbrella trades are done in the following way:

  • A trader initiates a position for a longer time-frame trade.
  • While the main trade develops, a trader identifies new setups in a shorter time frame in the direction of the main trade, entering and exiting them by the principles of scalping.

Based on particular setups, any trading system can be used for the purposes of scalping. In this regard, scalping can be seen as a kind of risk managementmethod. Basically, any trade can be turned into a scalp by taking a profit near the 1:1 risk/reward ratio. This means that the size of the profit taken equals the size of a stop dictated by the setup. If, for instance, a trader enters his or her position for a scalp trade at $20 with an initial stop at $19.90, the risk is 10 cents. This means a 1:1 risk/reward ratio will be reached at $20.10.

Scalp trades can be executed on both long and short sides. They can be done on breakouts or in range-bound trading. Many traditional chart formations, such as cups and handles or triangles, can be used for scalping. The same can be said about technical indicators if a trader bases decisions on them.

Tips for Novice Scalpers

With low barriers to entry in the trading world, the number of people trying their hands at day trading and other strategies such as scalping has increased. Newcomers to scalping need to make sure the trading style suits their personality because it requires a disciplined approach. Traders need to make quick decisions, spot opportunities and constantly monitor the screen. Those who are impatient and feel gratified by picking small successful trades are perfect for scalping.

That said, scalping is not the best trading strategy for rookies, as it involves fast decision-making, constant monitoring of positions and frequent turnover. Still, there are a few tips that can help novice scalpers.

Order execution: A novice needs to master the art of efficient order execution. A delayed or bad order can wipe out what little profit was earned and even result in a loss. Since the profit margin per trade is limited, the order execution has to be accurate. As mentioned above, this requires supporting systems such as Direct Access Trading and Level 2 quotations.

Frequency and costs: A novice scalper has to make sure to keep costs in mind while making trades. Scalping involves numerous trades — as many as hundreds during a trading session. Frequent buying and selling is bound to be costly in terms of commissions, which can shrink the profit. This makes it crucial to choose the right online broker. The broker should not only provide requisites like direct access to markets, but also competitive commissions. And remember, not all brokers allow scalping.

Trading: Spotting the trend and momentum comes in handy for a scalper who can even enter and exit briefly to repeat a pattern. A novice needs to understand the market pulse, and once the scalper has identified that, trend trading and momentum trading can help achieve more profitable trades. Another strategy used by scalpers is countertrend. But beginners should avoid using this strategy and stick to trading with the trend.

Trading sides: Beginners are usually more comfortable with trading on the buy side and should stick to it before they gain sufficient confidence and expertise to handle the short side. However, scalpers must eventually balance long and short trades for the best results.

Technical analysis: Novices should equip themselves with the basics of technical analysis to combat increasing competition in the intra-day world. This is especially relevant in today’s markets dominated by high-frequency trading, as well as the increasing use of dark pools.

Volume: As a technique, scalping requires frequent entry and exit decisions within a short time frame. Such a strategy can only be successfully implemented when orders can be filled, and this depends on liquidity levels. High-volume trades offer much-needed liquidity.

Discipline: As a rule, it is best to close all positions during a day’s trading session and not carry them over to the next day. Scalping is based on small opportunities that exist in the market, and a scalper should not deviate from the basic principle of holding a position for a short time period.